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## Welcome to Formatting Information

This is the online version of Formatting Information, a book about how to use the LATEX document preparation system. LATEX takes over where wordprocessors and desktop publishing systems leave off, making it possible to automate your formatting consistently, accurately, and reusably, without the tedious and repetitive manual formatting required by other systems.

This book is now in its sixth edition (2014) and has helped thousands of users get started. The only things you need are a computer and a copy of LATEX (free or commercial)...and a document that you want to typeset. LATEX works on almost any computer, and you can download it from the TUG web site, install it from the TUG DVD, or buy one of the excellent commercial versions.

If you are reading this online, the PDF and eBook versions will be available for download shortly.

This page doubles as the index in the PDF and eBook editions, but you might want to start at the beginning if you haven't done any typesetting before. If you're itching to get started, and you feel you know enough about computers and text-editing already, you can try the Quick Start instead.

Either way, welcome to LATEX, and take it gently for a while, and get used to being able to spend more time actually writing rather than formatting. If you find mistakes, please let me know so that I can correct them.

The same fonts are used here as in the text of the book (see § 7) to distinguish between different meanings:

 Notation Meaning CTAN Acronyms (small caps in some typefaces) \command LATEX control sequences (monospace font) term Defining instance of a specialist term (bold italics) product program or product name (italics) environment LATEX environment (sans-serif bold) package LATEX package (sans-serif; all available from CTAN) options Options to environments (sans-serif oblique) variables Variables (monospace oblique)

In the online version, the entries below are all hyperlinked to their source, with subsequent multiple occurrences giving the section number or name. Page or section numbers in bold type indicate a defining instance.

### Index

\#  1.4

\%  1.4

\&  1.4

\-  1.7

11pt  2.1

12pt  2.1

#### @

\@author  7.2, 7.2

\@date  7.2, 7.2

\@maketitle  7.2

\@title  7.2, 7.2

#### A

a4paper  2.1, 2.1

AAP  Home

abstract  2.4, 2.4

\abstractname  2.4

abstracts  2.4

accents  1.6

\affiliation  2.3

American Mathematical Society (AMS)  6.2

American National Standards Institute (ANSI)  D

American Political Science Review (APSR)  5.4

American Standard Code for Information Interchange (see ASCII)  D

Apple Mac  A

\arabic  7.6

arguments  1.3, 1.3

\arraystretch  4.3

ASCII  Intro.2, 1.6, 1.8, 4.5, 4.6, 6.3, 8.1, B.3, D

\author  2.3, 2.3, 5.2, 7.2

#### B

b  4.7

backslash  1.3

backtick  4.6

BaKoMa TEX  Home

\baselineskip  6.1

beer  5.5

\begin  2.2

\begin{itemize}[nosep]  4.2

Berry, Karl  6.3

Berry, Karl  A

Berry, Karl  6.3

\bfseries  1.3, 6.2, Home

bibliographic reference database  5.4

bibliographies  5.4

\bibliography  5.4, 5.4

\bibliographystyle  5.4

bibstyle  5.4

BIBTEX  5.4

\bigskip  6.1

binary  1, 6.3

BMP  4.5

boxes  4.7

bp (big points)  1.7

Budyta, Małgorzata  6.3

Build  5.4

#### C

Capacity exceeded  B.2

\caption  4.3, 5.4

Cascading Style Sheets (see CSS)  8.2

cc (Ciceros)  1.7

cd  B.1

CD-ROM  Home, 8

center  1.7, 4.3, 4.3, 6.2

\centering  1.7, 4.3, 6.2

\chapter  2.5, 2.5, 7.6

characters  1.4

Chassell, Bob  Preface

Chikrii, Kirill A  8.2

Chocolate Stout  5.5

\cite  5.4, 5.4, 5.4, 5.4

\cite[pp.47--52]{fg}  5.4

\citep  5.4

\citequote  5.1

citestyle  5.4

\citet  5.4

\clearpage  Home

CLI  Preface, Intro.3

\cline  4.3

CM  Home, 6.3

cm (centimeters)  1.7

cmr  6.2

cmss  6.2

cmtt  6.2

CMYK  6.2

\color  6.2

\colorbox  6.2

colour  6.2

columns  5.6

\columnsep  5.6

\command  Home, Home

Command-Line Interface (see CLI)  Intro.1

commands  1.3

comment character  1.4

commercial implementations  Intro.5

Common Gateway Interface (CGI)  Intro.1

commutative  6.2

Comprehensive TEX Archive Network (see CTAN)  3

Computer Modern (see CM)  6.2

Con TEXt  Preface

counter  Home

cross-references  5.4

CSS  6.2

CTAN  Foreword, Preface, Intro.4, Intro.5, Intro.6, Home, 2.1, 2.1, 3, 3, 3.1, 3.1, 3.2, 3.2, 3.3, 4.5, 5.5, 6.2, 6.3, 8.1, 8.2, A, A, A.2, A.4, B.4, C.1, Home

curly braces  1.3

curly braces  1.3

Cyan-Magenta-Yellow-Black (see CMYK)  6.2

#### D

\date  2.3, 2.3, 7.2, B.2, B.2

\datesubmitted  2.3

dd (Didot points)  1.7

\DeclareFontFamily  6.3

\DeclareFontShape  6.3

\def  7.4, 7.4

\definecolor  6.2

description  4.2

desktop publishing (see DTP)  Preface

device-independent (see DVI)  B.1

Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC)  Preface

Digital Restrictions Management (DRM)  1

dimension  2.6

dimensions  1.7

DOC TEX  3.2

document  Intro.4, 1.6, 2.2, 2.3

document class  2.1

Document Style Semantics and Specification Language (DSSSL)  8.3

\documentclass  1.6, 2.1, 2.4, 6.2

Dorner, Fernando  8.2

dots per inch (see dpi)  Intro.1

double-spacing  6.1

dpi  Intro.4

draft  2.1

DTP  Preface, 4.3, 6.2

DuBois, Paul  8.1

DVD  Home, 8, Home

DVI  Preface, Preface, 3.1, 4.5, 4.7, 8.2, B.1, B.3, B.3, B.3, B.3

dvips -f testpage | lpr  A.1

\dvips -R0 dvifile  4.5

dvipsnames  6.2

#### E

ECDL  Intro.2

\ef  7.1

element  2

em (relative measure)  1.7

\emph  6.2, 6.2

empty  6.1

Encapsulated PostScript (see EPS)  4.5

\end  2.2

\enspace  Home

enumerate  4.2

enumi  Home

enumii  Home

enumiii  Home

enumiv  Home

environment  Home, 2.2, 4.2, Home

EPS  4.5, 4.5, 4.5, 4.5, 4.5

equation  1.8

Error messages  B.2, B.2, B.2, B.2, B.2, B.2

Esser, Thomas  A

\EUR  1.4, 4.3

Euro  1.4

European Computer Driving Licence (see ECDL)  Intro.1

ex (relative measure)  1.7

example  4.2

Extensible HyperText Markup Language (see XHTML)  8.1

Extensible Markup Language (see XML)  8

Extensible Stylesheet Language (see XSL)  8.3

Extensible Stylesheet Language [Transformations] (see XSLT)  8.1

#### F

FAQ  Foreword, 3, 3.3, 3.3

\fbox  4.7, 4.7, 6.2

\fboxrule  4.7, 6.2

\fboxsep  4.7, 6.2

\fcolorbox  6.2

FD  6.3

Feuerstack, Thomas  A

figure  4.4

figure*  5.6

figures  4.4

File Transfer Protocol (FTP)  3

filenames  B

Fine, Jonathan  Home

floats  4.3, 4.4

flushleft  4.3, 6.2, 6.2, 7.2

flushright  4.3, 6.2, 6.2

\fnsymbol  5.2

font definition  6.3

font series  6.2

font shape  6.2

\fontfamily  6.2

fontname  6.2, 6.3, 6.3

fonts  2.1, 6.2, 6.2, 6.2, 6.2, 6.2, 6.3, 6.3, 6.3

\fontsize  6.2

\footcite  5.4

\footnote  5.2

footnotes  5.2

\footnotesize  Home

\footnote{...}  Home

\foreign  6.2

\foreignlanguage  1.7

#### G

GIF  4.5

glossaries  5.5, 5.5

\glossary  5.5

GNU  Intro.8

GNU's Not Unix (see GNU)  Home

Granzer, Andreas  8.2

Graphical User Interface (see GUI)  B.1

Graphics Interchange Format (see GIF)  4.5

\graphicspath  4.5

grave accent  4.6

Gregorio, Enrico  4.5

group  6.2

grouping  6.2

groups  6.2

GUI  Preface

#### H

Hagen, Hans  Preface

hard space  1.7

hash mark  1.4

help  3.3

Hennings, Wilfried  8.2

hinting  6.2

\hline  4.3

\hrule  7.2

\hspace  6.1

HTML  Intro.8, Home, 2.1, 2.2, 2.6, 4.3, 6.2, 8.1, 8.1, 8.2, 8.2, 8.3

\huge  Home

\Huge  Home

HyperText Markup Language (see HTML)  8

HyperText Transfer Protocol (HTTP)  3

hyphen  4.6

hyphenation  1.7, 1.7

hyphens  1.7, 1.7

#### I

\i  1.6

IBM  Home

images  4.5

in (inches)  1.7

\includegraphics  4.4, 4.5, 4.5, 4.5, 4.5

\includepackage{kurier}  6.3

\index  5.5, 7.4

indexes  5.5

inline  4.2

Inline lists  4.2

inparaenum  4.2

\item  4.2

itemize  4.2

\itshape  Home

#### J

Joint Photographic Experts Group (see JPG)  4.5

JPG  4.5, 4.5, 4.5, 4.5

Jørgensen, Palle  6.3

Jørgensen, Palle  6.2

#### K

Kastrup, David  Home

Kay, Michael  Intro.1

Kew, Jonathan  6.2

Kew, Jonathan  Preface

Knuth, Donald  Preface, C

Knuth, Donald  7.4

#### L

\label  4.2, 4.3, 5.4, 5.4

Lamport, Leslie  7.4

Lamport, Leslie  Preface

\Large  1.3, Home, 6.2

\large  Home

\LARGE  Home

latex  Intro.3, B.1

\LaTeX  8.1

latex testpage  A.1

\leftmark  6.1

\length  Home, 2.6

letterpaper  2.1, 2.1

letterspacing  Home

\linebreak  7.3

Linux  A

\listoffigures  Home, 2.7

\listoftables  Home, 2.7

lists  4.2, 4.2, 4.2, 4.2

Lotz, Manfred  A

ls -R  A.5

#### M

Mac OS X  A

macro  6.1

macros  7, 7

\makeatletter  7.2

\makeatother  7.2, 7.2

\makeglossary  5.5

\makeindex  5.5

\maketitle  2.3, 2.3, 2.4, 2.4, 3.1, 6.2, 7.2, 7.2, B.2

Malyshev, Basil K  Home

man makeindex  5.5

marginal notes  5.3

margins  6.1

\markboth  6.1

\markright  6.1

markup  1

math characters  1.8

mathematics  Intro.5, 1.8

\mbox  1.7, 7.3

measurements  1.7

\medskip  6.1

metacharacters  1.4

Microbrew  5.5

Microsoft Bitmap (see BMP)  4.5

Microsoft Windows  A

minipage  4.7, 4.7, 4.7, 5.2, 7.5

mirror  4.5

mkdir  6.3

mkdir ~/Library/texmf  A.2

mkdir -p fonts/source/public/whatever  Home

mkdir ~/texmf  A.2

mm (millimeters)  1.7

monospace  6.2

multicols  5.6

\multicolumn  4.3

multiplier  4.3

#### N

named  6.2

New Font Selection Scheme (NFSS)  6.3

New Typesetting System (NTS)  Preface

\newcommand  7.1, 7.4, 7.4

\newgeometry  6.1

noitemsep  4.2

\normalsize  Home

nosep  4.2

Nowacki, Janusz M  6.3

#### O

octothorpe  1.4

oneside  2.1

options  Home

OS X  A

Ota, Takaaki  4.3

\ovalbox  4.7

Overfull hbox  B.2

#### P

\P  5.4

p  6.3

packages  2.1, 3.1, 3.1, 3.1, 3.2, 3.2, 3.2

page size  6.1, B.4

\pageref  5.4

\pagestyle  6.1, 6.1

panels  4.7

paper sizes  2.1

\par  4.3, 6.1, 6.2, 6.2, 7.2

\paragraph  2.5, 4.2

\parbox  4.7, 4.7

\parencite  5.4, 5.4

\parindent  2.6, 4.7

\parskip  2.6, 2.6, 2.6

\part  2.5

\part*  2.5

pbk  6.2

pc (picas)  1.7

PC TEX  Home

PDA  Preface, 8

PDF  Preface, 1.5, 2.1, 3.1, 4.5, 4.5, 4.5, 4.5, 4.7, 6.1, 6.3, 8.2, 8.3, B.1, B.1, B.3, B.3, B.3, B.3, B.4

pdflatex  B.1

\person  7.4, 7.4, 7.4

Personal Digital Assistant (see PDA)  Intro.1

personal TEX directory  A.2

personal TEX folder  A.2

PFB  6.3

picas  1.7

picture  4.4

plain  6.1

plaintext  1

PNG  4.5, 4.5, 4.5, 4.5

points  1.7

Portable Document Format (see PDF)  B.3

Portable Network Graphic (see PNG)  4.5

PostScript (PS)  8.2

PostScript Font Binary (see PFB)  6.3

PostScript Font ASCII (PFA)  6.3

preamble  1.6

preview  B.3

\printbibliography  Home, 5.4

Printer Control Language (PCL)  4.5

\printglossary  Home

\printindex  Home, 5.5

printing  B, B.4, B.4

\product  6.2, 6.2, 7.3, 7.3

\protect  5.2

\ProvidesPackage  Home

pt (points)  1.7

#### Q

quotation  Home, 5.1

quotation marks  1.5

quote  5.1

#### R

\raggedleft  1.7, 1.7

\raggedright  1.7, 1.7, 4.7, 4.7

Raggett, Dave  8.1

Rahtz, Sebastian  A

\raisebox  7.6

Red-Green-Blue (see RGB)  6.2

\ref  4.2, 5.4, 5.4

references  5.4

\reindex  7.4, 7.4

\renewcommand  2.4, 2.4, 2.6, 4.3, 7.2, 7.6

\RequirePackage  6.2

RGB  6.2

Rich Text Format (see RTF)  8.1

\rightmark  6.1

RIS  5.4, 5.4

\rmdefault  Home

Rogue  5.5

roman  6.2

rotate  4.5

RTF  8.1, 8.2

Runaway argument  B.2

#### S

\S  5.4

sans-serif  6.2

Sath­yam, Ujwal  8.1

Sbox  4.7, 7.5

Scalable Vector Graphics (SVG)  6.2

scale  4.5

scaled  6.2

Schenk, Christian  A

scoped  6.2

\scriptsize  Home

\scshape  Home

secnumdepth  2.5

section  Home, 2.5, 2.5, 2.6, 6.1, 7.6

section numbering  2.5

sections  2.5

\selectfont  6.2, 6.2

\selectlanguage  1.7

\sentinel  7.4

\setcounter  2.5

\setlength  2.6, 2.6, 4.7

\sfdefault  Home

\sffamily  1.3, Home, 7.2

SGML  Home, 2.1, 8, 8.3

Show Library Folder  A.2

sidebars  4.7

size steps  6.2

size (fonts)  6.2

\slshape  Home

\small  5.1, Home

\smallskip  6.1

sp (scaled points)  1.7

space  6.1, 7.4

\spaceskip  1.7

spacing  6.1, Home

special characters  1.4

Stallman, Richard  Preface

Standard Generalized Markup Language (see SGML)  8.3

Stephani, Philipp  4.5

style (fonts)  6.2

style=authoryear  5.4

\subparagraph  2.5, 4.2

\subparagraph*  2.5

\subsection  2.5

\subsubsection  2.5

\sudo apt-get install texlive-full ghostscript gv okular kile texmaker emacs jabref  A.1

sudo texconfig  A.1

sudo yum install texlive-full ghostscript gv okular kile texmaker emacs jabref  A.1

summaries  2.4

svgnames  6.2

#### T

t  4.7

T1  1.6

\tabcolsep  4.3

table  4.3, 4.4

table*  5.6

\tableofcontents  1.3, 2.7, 2.7, 2.7, B.2

tables  4.3

tabular  4.3, 4.3, 4.7, 4.7, Home

Tagged Image File Format (TIFF)  4.5

Talbot, Nicola  4.3

TDS  3.1, 3.2, 3.2, 6.3

TDS TEX Directory Structure  3.2

TEI  Home

temporary directory  3.2

term  Home

te TEX  A

TEX Directory Structure (see TDS)  3.2

TEX Live  A

TEX Users Group (see TUG)  C

texconfig  A.1

texdoc  3.1

Text Encoding Initiative (see TEI)  8.2

\textbackslash  1.4

\textbrokenbar  1.8

\textbullet  4.2

\textcite  5.4, 5.4

\textcolor  6.2

\textdegree  1.8

\texteuro  1.4

\textit  6.2

\textlangle  1.8

\textrangle  1.8

\textsterling  1.4

\textsuperscript  1.4

\textwidth  Home

\thechapter  7.6

\theenumi  Home

\theenumii  Home

\theenumiii  Home

\theenumiv  Home

\TheSbox  7.5

\thinspace  1.5, 1.5, Home

\thispagestyle  6.1

Thành, Hàn Thế  Preface

\tiny  Home

\title  2.3, 2.3, 5.2, 7.2

titlepage  2.1

titles  2.3

\tmproduct  7.3

tocdepth  2.5, 2.7

Too many }'s  B.2

tools  5

tracking  Home

True TEX  Home

\ttdefault  Home

\ttfamily  Home

twoside  2.1

typesetting  B

typographics  6

#### U

\uline  6.2

Undefined control sequence  B.2

Underfull hbox  B.2

Underlining  6.2

Uniform Resource Indicator (see URI)  4.6

Uniform Resource Locator (URL)  4.6

units  1.7

Unix  A

unscoped  6.2

updmap --enable Map=kurier.map  6.3

\upshape  Home

URI  3.3, 4.6, 4.6, 4.6, 8.1, A.4, B

\usepackage  3.1, 6.3, B.2

\usepackage[scaled=0.86]{helvet}  6.2

utf8  1.6

utf8x  1.6, 1.6

#### V

V  6.3

variables  Home

\vbox  4.7

\verb  4.6, 4.6, 4.6, 5.2

verbatim  4.6, 4.6

Verbatim  4.6, 4.6

verbatim text  4.6

\VerbatimFootnotes  5.2

vertical bar  4.6

viewing  B

\vspace  6.1

\vspace*  6.1

V TEX  Home

#### W

Wawrykiewicz, Staszek  4.5

What You See Is What You Get (see WYSIWYG)  Intro.1

white-space  1.3, 1.3, 1.7, 6.1

WYSIWYG  Preface, Preface, Home, 2, B.3

#### X

XHTML  8.2

XHTML/5  Home

XML  Foreword, Preface, Intro.4, Intro.8, Home, 1.3, 2.1, 4.3, 4.6, 8, 8.1, 8.1, 8.1, 8.1, 8.1, 8.2, 8.3, D

XSL  8.3

XSLT  Home, Foreword, 8.1, 8.1, 8.1, 8.1, 8.1, 8.3, D

XSLT2  Intro.8

XƎTEX  Preface

\^  1.6

\^{}  1.4

\_  1.4

\{  1.4

\}  1.4

\~  1.4, 1.6

## Revision history

v. 7.0 — 30 July 2014

Completely re-edited, large sections rewritten, obsolete material removed, including installation changes for the 2014 DVD, and a completely new responsive web site launched.

v. 6.0 — 30 December 2013

Updated links, replaced references to obsolescent packages, rewrote installation for the 2013 DVD

v. 5.7 — 21 December 2011

Moved and expanded the details of creating a personal TeX directory. Added new section on using the LaTeX Font Catalog.

v. 5.6 — 1 November 2011

Revised installation details for TL2011.

v. 5.5 — 25 May 2011

Minor revision; added details of page references in citations, a warning about the broken harvard.sty and its solution with natbib and har2nat, and a reference to bibunits.

v. 5.4 — 27 April 2011

Minor revision; added details of packages for body type size options; fixed bug in HTML bibrefs which were failing to retrieve the date.

v. 5.3 — 22 March 2011

Minor revision; removed mention of VTeX as a synchronous typographic editor and replaced with BaKoMa TeX. Located and fixed XSLT bug which was preventing cross-reference IDs being used correctly. Finally tracked down the non-appearance of italics in some places (no Lite Italic in my copy of Antique Olive).

v. 5.2 — 13 March 2011

Minor revision; even finer details of the problems Windows users face at installation.

v. 5.1 — 5 March 2011

Minor revision; spellings and font selection errors repaired; missing rule in HTML table example; better details of the problems Windows users face at installation.

v. 5 — 28 January 2011

Major revision; Installation and Editors sections rewritten, remaining package references updated, and more new ones added.

v. 4 — 1 April 2009

Major revision; Installation and Editors sections reorganised, all package references updated, and new ones added.

v. 3.7 — 22 December 2006

There have again been some small but significant improvements, both in the LATEX code, and in the default installations and implementations. The default colour package is now xcolor; the default output for many people is now PDF; and the advent of XƎTEX means that TrueType fonts and Unicode are now much more easily supported. The DocBook DTD has been updated to 4.4, and the TypeBook DTD shim likewise, and the IGNOREd code from 3.5 and earlier versions has now finally been dropped. XSLT still has the notorious design flaw of ignoring whitespace nodes in mixed content when a DTD is used, but this seems to have gone unnoticed except by the publishing industry. The use of the citetitle element for bibliographic references has been replaced by biblioref.

v. 3.6 — 31 March 2005

Since the publication of the November 2003 edition in ‘TUGboat’, several new books on LATEX have been released, and this edition reflects some of the new material and approaches contained in them. See the Bibliography for details of these publications. The only technical change has been to use empty elements for the TEX, LATEX, and other logos instead of the more usual entities so that the HTML version can use CSS to produce better logos. Thanks to whoever wrote the CSS for TEX4ht, which is where I found the styles.

v. 3.5 — 29 July 2004

Modified DTD to add span element type to allow use of external entities for formatted TEX, LATEX, and other logos in the HTML version. Changed entity declaration in the internal subset to enable this, and switched declarations and marked sections in the DTD. This now means it needs Saxon 7 or 8 to process, as Saxon 6 does not handle parameter entities values used as parameter entity declarations.

v. 3.4 — 9 November 2003

Applied all Barbara Beeton's corrections (see separate emails) and rewrote a few formatting macros to allow the document to fit more easily into US Letter shape. It would be nice if it would also format for A5 so that it could become a paperback but that's another day's work. Started on writing the missing sections (Installing Type 1 CM Fonts and Going beyond LATEX, but these are not finished yet) and rewrote entirely the existing (non-CM) Type 1 font installation procedure in line with the new (unreleased) Gutta-Percha script. Added hidden meanings for CD-ROM, DVD, IBM.

v. 3.3 — 20 August 2003

Fixed XSLT bug which wrongly lettered appendices. Fixed problem which called wrong font for examples of Times and Helvetica (thanks to William Adams). Updated numerous typos, added comments about pdftex option to color. Rewrote formatting for TUGboat.

v. 3.2 — 5 March 2003

Finished rewrite. Revised and expanded almost everything.

v. 3.1 — 28 August 2002

Recast in DocBook and reworded some sections. Started the big rewrite.

1. See, for example, the list of TEX vendors in Table 1, and the list of consultants published by TUG

2. A guesstimate. With free software it's virtually impossible to tell how many people are using it.

3. GNU's Not Unix (GNU) is a project to create a completely free computing system — ‘free’ meaning both free from encumbrances and restrictions as well as free of charge.

4. Knuth still fixes bugs, although the chances of finding a bug in TEX these days approaches zero.

5. Not a wordprocessor like OpenOffice, Lotus Notes, Corel WordPerfect, or Microsoft Word, and not a ‘dumb’ editor like Apple TextEdit or Microsoft Notepad

6. Y&Y, Inc, who produced a TEX distribution for many years, have ceased trading. Some of their add-on fonts are now being distributed by the TEX Users Group (see the appendix ‘User Groups’), or have been replaced by Open Source implementations, and there is a mailing list at the TUG web site for the support of former Y&Y users.

7. For example if you want to use the new biblatex/biber bibliographic referencing mechanism instead of the older BIBTEX one. If you use biblatex, you MUST use the utf8 option instead of utf8x

8. Remember not everyone is lucky enough to be able to install new software: many users on business and academic networks still use old versions of TEX because they or their system managers don't know how to update them. Local user groups may be able to provide help and support here.

9. Bear in mind that the degree symbol is a non- ASCII character, so you must specify what input encoding you are using if you want to type it: see the example of the inputenc package in § 1.6. If you don't want to use non-ASCII characters (or if you are using a system which cannot generate them), you can use the command \textdegree to get the degree sign.

10. You will also see dollar signs used for math mode. This is quite common but deprecated: it's what plain TEX used in the days before LATEX, and the habit got ingrained in many mathematicians. It still works as a convenient shorthand like $x=y$, as do double-dollars for display-mode math like $$E=mc^2$$, but they are only mentioned here to warn readers seeing them in other authors' work that $$...$$ and $...$ are the proper LATEX commands.

11. Readers familiar with SGML, HTML, and XML will recognize the concept as similar to the Document Type Declaration (it's still called a ‘type’ there, not a ‘class’).

12. Theses and dissertations require an Abstract, which is provided in the report class but not in the book class.

13. The built-in letter class is rather idiosyncratic: there are much better ones you can use which you will find in the memoir package and the komascript bundle.

14. Letter size is 8½″×11″, which is the trimmed size of the long-obsolete Demy Quarto, still in use in North America. The other common US office size is ‘Legal’, which is 8½″×14″, a variant cutting close to the old Foolscap (8¼″×13¼″). ISO standard ‘A’, ‘B’, and ‘C’ paper sizes, used everywhere else, are still virtually unknown in most parts of North America.

15. Note that the standard built-in document classes (book, article, report, or letter) only use the paper size to adjust the margins: they do not embed the paper size name in any PostScript or PDF output file. For this you need the geometry package. If you are using pdf LATEX, or intend creating PostScript output, and you want to change the default paper size, you must specify it both in the Document Class option and as an option to the geometry package (see the example ‘Read all about it’), in order to ensure that the paper size name gets embedded correctly in the output, otherwise printers may select the wrong paper tray, or reject the job.

16. If you're familiar with HTML, you'll recognise this technique: just like start-tags and end-tags.

17. It is arguable that chapters also have no place in reports, either, as these are conventionally divided into sections as the top-level division. LATEX, however, assumes your reports have chapters, but this is only the default, and can be changed very simply (see § 7.6).

18. Paragraph spacing and indentation are cultural settings. If you are typesetting in a language other than English, you should use the babel package, which alters many things, including the spacing and the naming of sections, to conform with the standards of different countries and languages.

19. For example, there is no xcolor.dtx and xcolor.ins for the xcolor package because it forms part of the graphics bundle, which is installed on all LATEX systems anyway. Such packages change very rarely, as they form part of the core of LATEX and are very stable. You should never try to update these packages in isolation.

20. Almost all of these have been updated to work with LATEX, so they should be installed as in the step ‘Install the files’

21. Note that this means newsreaders for the Usenet News (NNTP) service. It does not mean syndication readers for RSS, which are a different thing entirely — these are unfortunately also sometimes referred to as ‘newsreaders’.

22. If your browser font doesn't show it, don't worry: some don't. LATEX will.

23. In fact, any time you define a counter in LATEX, you automatically get a command to reproduce its value. So if you defined a new counter example to use in a teaching book, by saying \newcounter{example}, that automatically makes available the command \theexample for use when you want to display the current value of example

24. You may find a lot of old files which use a package called epsf. Don't use it: it's obsolete.

25. Some commercial distributions of TEX systems allow other formats to be used, such as GIF, Microsoft Bitmap (BMP), or Hewlett-Packard's Printer Control Language (PCL) files, and others, by using additional conversion software provided by the supplier; but you cannot send such documents to other LATEX users and expect them to work if they don't have the same distribution installed as you have. If you use standard LATEX, stick to EPS

26. Strictly speaking the exact order (from the newest definition in pdftex.def) is .png, .pdf, .jpg, .mps, .jpeg, .jbig2, .jb2, .PNG, .PDF, .JPG, .JPEG, .JBIG2, and .JB2. Thanks to Enrico Gregorio and Philipp Stephani on comp.text.tex for locating this.

27. The original term Uniform Resource Locator (URL) is now deprecated in favour of the more accurate Uniform Resource Indicator (URI). For details see http://www.w3.org/Addressing/. Unfortunately the older term still persists, especially in LATEX and XML markup.

28. Like this.

29. Like this.

30. This section is labelled normalxref, for example.

31. Thus I can refer here to \ref{normalxref} and get the value § 5.4.1

32. If your software doesn't save BIBTEX format direct, save it as RIS format, then open the .ris file in something like JabRef and save it as a .bib file from there.

33. Fothergill, John (1929) An Innkeeper's Diary, London : Penguin.

34. On GNU/Linux and Mac systems, just type the command man makeindex; the page is also available in many reference sites on the web: search for that command.

35. This does not apply for the German technique in blackletter type of using letter-spacing instead of (non-existent) italics. The defaults in the soul package were designed to cater for this.

36. The Helvetica typeface family has a notoriously large x-height, making it hard to match with other typefaces at the same nominal size. The helvet package therefore has a scaled option that lets you reduce the optical size slightly so that the font sits more easily with others: \usepackage[scaled=0.86]{helvet}, for example.

37. The pslatex package is also said to be outdated by some experts because it implements rather long-windedly what can now be done in three commands. However, until these replace the current version, I recommend continuing to use pslatex when you want Times with Helvetica and narrow Courier.

38. Although if you're a typographer wanting to experiment with typewriter typefaces with and without serifs, you can use METAFONT or FontForgeto do exactly this kind of thing. But that's way outside the scope of this document.

39. On UNIX and GNU/Linux systems, including Apple Macs, the easiest way to do this is in a Terminal window, in your Personal TEX Directory, using the command mkdir -p fonts/source/public/whatever, as this creates any intervening subdirectories for you. Under Windows, you have to create each subsubdirectory individually.

40. Confusingly, Bitstream fonts (and others from similar sources) mostly have different names from the original fonts, to avoid copyright issues, so what they call Humanist 521 is actually Gill Sans. Until recently, US law only allowed the names of typefaces to be copyrighted, not the font designs themselves, leading to widespread piracy.

41. Y&Y, Inc has ceased trading and their TEX distribution is not longer available, although there is email support at http://lists.ucc.ie/lists/archives/yandytex.html, and their encoding files continue to be used.

42. The only one I had problems with is ‘Å’, which for some weird reason isn't catered for in this encoding.

43. If you move all this preamble into a style file of your own, you don't need these commands: the use of @ signs in command names is allowed in style and class files.

44. Don't try this at home alone, children! This one is safe enough, but you should strictly avoid \def for a couple of years. Stick to \newcommand for now.

45. Strictly speaking it isn't output at this stage: XML processors build a ‘tree’ (a hierarchy) of elements in memory, and they only get ‘serialised’ at the end of processing, into a stream of characters written to a file.

46. Some recent versions of Emacs hide the log if there were no errors, and display it only if something went wrong.

47. This only works if you're using an editor which LATEX can communicate with.

48. This is only a temporary fix to get the file processed. You still have to make that correction in the editor.